Entropion is an inward rolling of the eyelid. Although the exact genetic pattern is usually not known, the problem is most likely caused by many genes that are responsible for the overall head and face conformation.
The treatment for entropion is surgery to remove some skin and muscle along the eyelid margin. This is cosmetic surgery and after reconstructing the eyelid, the lids should look normal. The incision is closed with tiny absorbable sutures and you shouldn't be able to see a scar at all.
The permanent surgery can be performed after the age of 4-6 months depending on the patient's particular problem such as corneal ulceration caused by the abrasive eyelid hairs. Usually only one surgery is required but since the problem occurs in growing patients, we might have to perform further surgery when the patient is an adult. However, about most patients require only one surgery.
After the surgery, the patient should not be bred since the problem is considered inherited.
Glaucoma is a condition associated with elevated pressure within the eye. The fluid which fills the eye is constantly being produced, circulates around the lens, and exits the eye through the iridocorneal angle (see drawing). The balance between fluid production and outflow results in normal intraocular pressure between 10-30 mm Hg. Elevation in intraocular pressure occurs as a result of poor fluid outflow.
Glaucoma most commonly occurs as a primary inherited disease in many breeds of dogs Inadequate fluid outflow may also occur from secondary causes such as dislocation of the lens, trauma, inflammation, or tumours. In these cases, treatment will be directed at the primary disorder.
The prognosis for vision in an eye with glaucoma depends on the degree and duration of elevated pressure. Irreversible damage to the retina and optic nerve may occur within a day or two if the pressure is markedly elevated. If only one eye is involved, your pet may compensate for his loss of vision until permanent damage has occurred in the involved eye. Since glaucoma will often ultimately affect both eyes, evaluation of the "normal" eye is very important. Gonioscopy is an examination of the iridocorneal angle that will assist in this evaluation.
Treatment for glaucoma depends on whether permanent vision loss has occurred. In early cases, medications may be given to lower the pressure immediately. However, rarely is medication alone successful in the long-term. In most cases, surgery offers the best opportunity to restore and maintain vision. Laser cyclophotocoagulation is a relatively new technique which uses a diode laser to burn small areas in the tissue in the eye (ciliary body) which produces fluid so that less fluid is produced. This procedure has the advantages of being relatively quick with minimal post-operative discomfort. Results are variable though and occasionally, more than one procedure may be required. Some cases require a combination of medical and surgical management and all cases require close clinical supervision. You should watch for signs of loss of vision, pain, or a cloudy appearance to the eye.